Saturday, March 25

Al Tajrid Al Sarih: Kitab ul Jumu'ah


Al Tajrid al Sarih
This is the Abridged Saheeh al-Bukhari. This abridgement of Saheeh al-Bukhari was conducted by Imam Zain-ud-Din Ahmad bin Abdul Lateef az-Zubaidi who was a scholar of the 15th century (CE) from Yemen. He was born in 812 Hijri and died in 893 Hijri. The original Saheeh al-Bukhari contains over 7000 hadeeth, many of which are repeated so in his compendium az-Zubaidi removed the chains of narration sufficing with only the name of the companion, and he also removed all the repeated ahadeeth leaving only the longest version of each hadeeth. Thus, he has reduced approximately 7400 hadeeth to around 2230. It is this abridgement of Saheeh al-Bukhari which is known as al Tajrid al Sarih, that Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq teaches each Friday in English.
If you would like to purchase a copy of Al Tajrid al Sarih in order to follow the weekly sessions on Paltalk, live from Leicester, UK (Fridays at 8:15pm) please visit:
Kitab ul Jumu'ah
Chapter 14:
Adhan on Friday for the Jumu’ah prayer
The chapter headings and titles of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) are one of the most important aspects of his work. The ulema say that the fiqh of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) can be gleaned from his chapter headings. Every word has been selected for a reason.
Shaykh mentioned that al Tajrid al Sarih is a complex book and translations are commonly available and people already read these translations and only Allah knows best what they understand. People try and arrive at deductions and conclusions based on these translations from their limited understanding and knowledge. Hence, it is better to learn from the scholars in a traditional manner with a thorough explanation - hence, this is another reason for teaching this book.

With regard to the chapter headings, sometimes they have an obvious connection with the hadeeth and other times it can be ambiguous. With regard to this Chapter heading, "Chapter of Adhaan on Friday", Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) is explaining the method of Adhaan on Friday as well as the history of how this method came about.

509. Narrated by As-Saib bin Yazid (رضى الله عنه): In the life-time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr رضى الله عنه and Umar رضى الله عنه, the Adhan for the Jumu’ah prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Medina."

Adhaan simply means a 'call to prayer'.
During the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه), the first Adhaan would be when the Imam would arrive and sit on the minbar. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) added a third Adhaan at Az-Zaura, which was a marketplace in Madinah.
This practice of the third Adhaan remains until today.

The Adhaans for Jumu'ah are as follows:

First Adhaan – when the time for Jumu’ah begins

Second Adhaan – when the imam sits on the minbar

Narrated by As-Sa'ib bin Yazid I : 'Uthman bin 'Affan introduced the second Adhan on Fridays when the number of the people in the mosque increased. Previously the Adhan on Fridays used to be pronounced only after the Imam had taken his seat (on the pulpit).

Third Adhaan – when the imam descends and the Mu’adhdhin gives the Iqama prior to salaah

The Iqama is also referred to as an Adhan in the Hadith. For example, there is a Hadith narrated in Bukhari and Muslim that ‘between every two Adhan is a salaah for whoever wishes to pray salaah” – when the second Adhan means Iqama. The reason why the Iqama is also called ‘Adhan’ is because it serves the same purpose and the words are practically the same.
During the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه) there were only two Adhan. The first Adhan on Friday would be when the Imam would be on the minbar and the second when the Imam would descend.

During the time of Uthman (رضى الله عنه), the population of Medina increased and people began to live further away, and there was some slackness in coming to Jumu’ah. This was over 12 years after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) was the Khalifah for 2 years and Umar (رضى الله عنه) for 10 years. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) instructed an Adhan to be given at Az-Zaura which was an elevated marketplace (some say it was a building). This Adhan was 3rd in the chronology of Islam after the two that were already in practice but it was given first. There is another narration of Bukhari that this became the established practice after that time.
The important lesson to be derived from this Hadith is that we have to be very careful about what we call a Bid’ah by using simplistic arguments that a practice was not in place at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

There is a Hadith that Abdullah Ibn Umar (رضى الله عنه) called the 3rd Adhan a Bid’ah. Also Hasan al-Basri (رحمة الله عليه) said that the 1st Adhan is when the Imam sits on the minbar and any Adhan before this is muhdaf i.e. added on later (an innovation). However, they do not mean a reprehensible Bid’ah but an unprecedented practice but favourable and genuine, and acceptable in religion. It is not easy to call something a Bid’ah as many laws regulate what is to be called a reprehensible Bid’ah. It is narrated that Ibn Taimiyah said that for someone to classify something as Bid’ah, he has to be an expert in 27 sciences of Islam!
There is a Hadith that Umar (رضى الله عنه) announced that people have increased in number so I have instructed someone to stand and call people to prayer. I have innovated this because of the excessive number of Muslims.

This was not an Adhan but a call or reminder to people to come for salaah. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) changed this call to an actual Adhan, in front of all the companions who were alive – not a single companion objected. However, once when Uthman (رضى الله عنه) as the Khalifah went for Hajj he performed 4 rakahs as a musafir instead of 2. Many Sahaba objected and remonstrated with him. However, no one objected when he added the 3rd Adhan. From that moment till today, throughout history from Muslim Spain to India to China, this remained and remains the practice. This was done with the ijtihad of Uthman (رضى الله عنه) – it was his analogical reasoning and deduction and the other Sahaba accepted.
Though many people argue it, the third Athan is not an invention, it is not Bid’ah. It is clearly related to the salaah, to call the believers to prayer. It is not a new practice but resembles this Hadith.
Though many people argue it, the third Athan is not an invention, it is not Bid’ah. It is clearly related to the salaah, to call the believers to prayer. It is not a new practice but resembles this Hadith.
Chapter 15:
One Mu’adhdhin on Friday

510. Narrated by As-Said bin Yazid (رضى الله عنه) in another quotation: In the lifetime of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم there was only one Mu’adhdhin and the Athan used to be pronounced only after the Imam had taken his seat (i.e. on the pulpit). [2.36-O.B]
Here Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) explains the rulings of the number of muadhins on Friday. We learn from a narration of ibn Habeeb (رحمة الله عليه) that there were 3 muadhins who would give Adhaan simultaneously on Friday. One of the Ummayid princes (Hishaam) adopted this practice i.e. 3 simultaneous Adhaans in the same Masjid. Imam Malik mentions in some narrations of his muwatta that during the time of Umar (رضى الله عنه) there were 3 muadhins on Friday.

None of these narrations are of that authenticity or stringent acceptable nature [of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه)]
With the exception of a few, the practice of the ulema throughout the world has been that only one muadhin gives the Adhaan on Friday. However, it is permissible for one person to give the Adhaan and another to give the iqaamah. This chapter heading is in reference to 2 or more people giving the same Adhaan.

This hadeeth is another narration of Hadeeth 508 with some additional wordings.
The hadeeth does not mean there was only one muadhin at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) or at the Masjid of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) i.e. it does not mean that the only muadhin was Bilal (رضى الله عنه). There were many other muadhdhins other than Bilal (رضى الله عنه) at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). For example, Abdullah ibn Um Maqtoum (رضى الله عنه) who was the blind and very pious sahabi mentioned in Surah Abasa [Tafseer of this Surah by Shaykh Riyadh ul Haq is available -
http://www.alkawtharacademy.org/store/view_product.php?product=AKATQ-0041] used to give Adhaan at the time of sahoor (not Jumuah). He would be appointed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as the governor of Madinah in his absence and would lead the salah. Other sahabi including S’ad (رضى الله عنه) and Harith (رضى الله عنه) would also give the Adhaan in their masajid. However, the honour for performing the Jumu’ah Adhaan and iqaamah invariably went to Bilal (رضى الله عنه).

There should only be one Mu’adhdhin on Jumu’ah, there can be different ones but not all at the same time. It is not the Sunnah or accepted practice to have 3 at the same time.

Chapter 16:
The Imam, while sitting on the pulpit, repeats the statements of the Adhan on Friday

511. Narrated by Abu Umama bin Sahl bin Hanif: “While Mu’awiya bin Abu Sufyan (رضى الله عنه) was sitting on the pulpit the Mu’adhdhin pronounced the Adhan saying, “Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar” Mu’awiya said “Allahu-Akbar, Allahu-Akbar”. And when the Mu’adhdhin said, “Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah” (I testify that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) is the Messenger of Allah), Mu’awiya said, “and so do I”. When the Athan was finished, Mu’awiya said, “O people, when the Mu’adhdhin pronounced that Athan I heard Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) on this very pulpit saying what you have just heard me saying.
This hadeeth is related to a famous issue about whether it is permissible to speak when the khutbah begins.Shaykh begin commentary of this hadeeth by explaining the importance of the khutbah on Friday. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (رحمة الله عليه) and other ulema declare that the two sermons before salah on Friday are representative of the first two rakaats of Dhuhr salah. Therefore, the khutbah is an integral part of Jumu’ah salah. Without the khutbah there is no salah. Hence, it cannot be delivered in any language other than Arabic. Shaykh explained how the khutbah is not a sermon. Allah says in Surah Jumu’ah:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِي لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
Oh Believers! When the call to prayer is given on Friday then hasten towards the dhikr of Allah [62:9]
There is a consensus of the ulema that dhikr in this verse refers to the khutbah. Hence, the Friday khutbah is hamd, dhikr and du’a. It should be in Arabic, both the first and the second khutbah.Shaykh advised young brothers who perform jumu’ah at universities, schools etc to ensure that the khutbah is in Arabic. Shaykh said that if the argument is that you do not understand - well you don’t understand the salah either so why not have that in English too!
Others argue that people need to be educated – Shaykh said then rather than rushing to get to the Masjid last minute, one should sacrifice and arrive 15 minutes early when the non-Arabic speech takes place.Shaykh then went on to say that after misfortunate events in the UK, commentators on TV, radio etc have been saying that ‘backward mullahs’ have come to the country who don’t know the language or understand the culture and are illiterate village mullahs. Shaykh said “I don’t buy that argument. I am not an import!” Shaykh mentioned how he has grown up in the UK, and Alhamdulillah understands the language and culture as well as the subtle nuances of the language (Alhamdulillah). Furthermore, when it comes to watching Bollywood movies and listening to Bollywood songs everyone understands! Where’s the lack of Urdu when it comes to Bollywood? Shaykh said that when he speaks in Urdu he gets labelled a ‘backward mullah’. However, when he speaks in English the elders complain (although they are happy to listen to cricket commentary in English!).- Shaykh said “If there is a will, there is a way!”The lesson to be drawn is that if you cannot understand the Arabic khutbah then come early for Jumu’ah salah but do not tamper with the original khutbah.A question which is often asked is whether we should remain silent or reply when the Adhaan is given on Friday.
According to Imam Abu Hanifah (رحمة الله عليه) when the Imam enters the Masjid (even before sitting on the minbar) all irreligious talk is impermissible.According to Imam Abu Yusuf (رحمة الله عليه) and other Hanafi scholars it is permissible to speak until the Imam begins speaking.In this hadeeth we learn that Muawiyah (رضى الله عنه) emulated the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) by replying to the muadhin when he was the Imam. All ulema agree that it is permissible for the Imam to reply to the Adhaan (hence Imam Bukhari’s precise wordings).According to Imam Shafi (رحمة الله عليه), Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) and other ulema it is impermissible to speak when the Imam begins speaking about anything related to the dunya.
However, the Adhaan is firstly given before the Imam has begun speaking and secondly it is not related to the dunya.Although there is a difference of opinion in the Hanafi school of thought with regard to when the prohibition of irreligious talk begins, it is permissible to reply to Adhaan.In summary, the ulema say it is permissible for the Imam and congregation to reply to the Adhaan. However, Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) only deduces that which is directly deducible from the hadeeth hence the precise chapter heading.

When the Imam enters the Masjid, one can not speak relating to the dunya (Hanafi), even before the Athan or khutbah (Hanafi). When Imam speaks you should remain silent. The Imam can reply to the Mu’adhdhin whilst on the minbar. It is permissible in all madhabs to reply to the Athan as it is not related to the dunya (world).

Chapter 17:
(To deliver) the Khutbah on the pulpit
512. The Hadith of Sahl bin Sa’d regarding the pulpit (Hadith No.249) Sahl mentioned that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم offered Salaat (prayer) on it, and then stepped back and added in this quotation “After finishing the Salaat he صلى الله عليه و سلم faced the people and said, I have done this so that you may follow me and learn the way I offer Salaat.”

So when the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم completed His prayer on the Minbar, He stepped back from it and said, I have don’t this so you may learn my prayer, and adopt my example of salaah and khutbah

513. Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (رضى الله عنهما): The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to stand by a stem of date palm tree (while delivering the Khutba) when the pulpit was placed for him we heard that stem crying like a pregnant she camel till the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم got down from the pulpit and placed his hand over it [2.41-O.B]

The Masjid of Rasool Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) had pillars made of trees (date palm) only the front part was roofed with branches and twigs and leaves, the rest was open. The roof rested on the tree trunks. Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to rest against a tree trunk during khutbah delivery. When he began to get tired, he told the Sahaba, that he could no longer stand during khutbah, so Maymoon (the carpenter) built the minbar with 3 steps. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم sat on the minbar, the pillar began to shake and let out a sad scream whimpering like a she camel. Whimpered like a child being put to sleep. In places it began to crack. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم hugged and stroked the tree, comforting it. Then he said: Wallahi, if I have had not hugged/comforted the tree, it would have cried/wept all the way to the day of judgement. Many of the companions wept with the tree trunk. This beam of wood desired Rasool Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم so much it thought it was the minbar. The people should desire that He said. He said He had two choices, to let it return to its original state, or plant it in Janaah. The Prophet supplicated, made dua’a for the tree to be cut and buried, so that it could be replanted in Janaah and the people of Janaah could eat from its fruits.

Chapter 18:
To deliver the Khutbah while standing.
514. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (رضى الله عنهما): The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to deliver the Khutbah whiles standing and then he would sit, then stand again as you do nowadays. [2:43-O.B]

Referring to the Khutbah when food and provisions (trade) arrived, they rush to it and they leave you standing (Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم).
Sitting down during the Khutbah is not proven in the Sunnah. People today sit on the minbar for no apparent reason. Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) states the khutbah should be given standing; any other talk can be given seated or standing.
The Hanafi opinion on this is that sitting contravene the Sunnah but it is not necessary. It is preferable to stand but does not make it invalid if you sit. The Maliki opinion states that it is wajib but still valid, and standing is not a condition of validity. The Hanbali and Shafa’i opinion state that standing is a condition of validity if you are not sitting out of necessity.
The narration later narration (Hadith 522) by Jabir رضى الله عنه referred to prayer but not salaah, where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was delivering a khutbah. Where Allah سبحانه وتعالى narrated and they leave you “standing” meaning standing on the khutbah. This hence proves a person should stand on the minbar in the khutbah. This is because the khutbah of Jumu’ah is part of the salaah, they are substitute for the dhuhr salaah on Friday. In general the Ulema are unanimous in their understanding of this.

Chapter 19:
Saying Amma ba’du in the Khutba (religious talk) after glorifying Allah سبحانه وتعالى.

515. Narrated by ‘Amr bin Taghlib (رضى الله عنه) Some properties or something was bought to Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم and he distributed it. He gave to some men and ignored others. Later he got the news of his being admonished by those whom he had ignored. So he glorified and praised Allah and said; “ ‘Amma ba’du. By Allah, I may give to a man and ignore another, although the one whom I ignore is more dearer to me than the one who I give. But I give to some people as I feel that they have no contentment (impatience and anxiety) in their hearts and leave those who are patient and self-contented with the goodness and richness which Allah has put into their hearts and ‘Amr bin Taghlib is one of them.” (‘Amr added), ‘By Allah! Those words of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم were more dearer to me than the best red camels.” [2:45-O.B]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم would recite the initial Khutbah and say ‘Amma ba’du. The Sahaba رضى الله عنهم used to do this also. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to say this it meant in context that “after saying this, what follows is this.” Hence there is an origin and basis of Amma Ba’du. Although the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gave to some and not to some. Those who were left out were displeased. So the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gave to certain people because of ‘Jaza’ (non contentment, anger, irrational people) because he saw the ‘Hala’ (anxiety, mental and emotional distress) in their hearts. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gave to them in order to put their hearts to rest or they risked swerving from the path of Allah by being suspicious and condemning. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم believed they would remain steadfast if given material provisions. So in turn he could see those with ‘As-Sabr’ and chose not to give to them due to what he saw in their hearts.

516. Narrated Abu Hamaid As-Sa’idi (رضى الله عنه): One night Allah’s Messenger stood up after As-Salaat (the prayer) glorified and praised Allah then he said, “Amma ba’du” [2:47-O.B]

So again he says after glorifying Allah, after saying that, what follows is this.

517. Narrated by Ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنهما): Once the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم ascended the pulpit and it was the last gathering in which we took part. He was covering his shoulder with a big cloak and binding his head with an oily bandage. He glorified and praised Allah and said; “O people! Come to me.” So the people came and gathered around him and he then said, “ Amma ba’du. From now onwards, this community of the Ansar will decrease and other people will increase. So anybody who becomes a ruler of the followers of Muhammad and has the power to harm or benefit people then he should accept the good from the benevolent amongst them (Ansar) and overlook the faults of their wrongdoers.” [2:49-O.B]

Here the Prophet states that the proportion of the Ansar amongst the people would decrease. In the battles that took place in the 8 AH, against the contingent army in Mecca; much wealth was gathered. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was outside Mecca with His companions. However the wealth was distributed to the new Muslims the Quraysh, although the Sahaba said they were the ones that made the sacrifice. In this Hadith the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم commands us to forgive properly and not to swear by Allah that we will not forgive our family and friends; when Allah is most forgiving.

Chapter 20:
When an Imam sees a person entering a Masjid during the Khutbah (religious talk) he should order him to pray two raka’ah before sitting.

518. Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (رضى الله عنهما): A person entered the mosque whilst the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was delivering the khutbah on a Friday. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to him, “Have you offered the Salaat (prayer)?” The man replied in the negative, The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “ Get up and pray two Raka’ah. [2:52-O.B]

Only Sulaiq (رضى الله عنه) was told to rise and pray and the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did not start the Khutbah till he had finished. This Hadith refers to Sunnah, not Tahiyyat ul masjid as that is not possible outside the masjid. Hence this Hadith supports that before the khutbah has started it is permissible to pray and collect charity (sadaqah). But the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم further went on to say that you should only give sadaqah so you are not needy of sadaqah as well. The intensity of this incidence is such that although Hanafi and Malikis believe this is an isolated occurrence, there should be no prayer, khutbah or speech during the actual Jumu’ah khutbah.
The general consensus amongst the four madhabs is such that, Hanafi and Malikis suggest that you shouldn’t pray salaah if the khutbah has started, whereas Hanbali’s and Shafa’i opinion is that you should pray before you sit. If you sit down it is not allowed to get up again and then pray; you should walk in and pray or you have lost the opportunity. There is no Tahajut ul Masjid outside the masjid. Many rules were relaxed as Islam was evolving and came into play afterwards. For example Fasting (2AH), alcohol prohibition (3AH).

Chapter 21:
Istisqa (Invoking Allah for rain) in the Khutbah on Friday.
519. Narrated by Anas bin Malik (رضى الله عنه): Once in the lifetime of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم the people were afflicted with drought. While the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was delivering the Khutbah on a Friday, a Bedouin stood up and said “O Allah’s Messenger! Our possessions are being destroyed and the children are hungry; please invoke Allah (for rain)”. So the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم raised His hands (invoked Allah for rain). At that time there was not a trace of cloud in the sky. By Him, in Whose hands my soul is, as soon as he lowered his hands, clouds gathered like mountains, and before he got down from the pulpit, I saw the rain falling on the beard of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. It rained that day, the next day, the third day and the fourth day till the next Friday. The same Bedouin or another man stood up and said “O Allah’s Messenger! The houses have collapsed our possessions and livestock have been drowned; please invoke Allah for us (stop the rain)”. So the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم raised both his hands and said “O Allah! Round about us and not on us (Allahumma hawaa alayna wa alayna)”. So, in what ever direction he pointed his hands, the clouds dispersed and cleared away, and Al Medina’s (sky) became clear as a hole in between the clouds. The valley of Qanat remained flooded for one month, non came from outside but talking about the abundant rain. [2.55-O.B]

Although in this example the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم raised his hands in invocation to Allah for rain, raising hands during the khutbah is not permissible and we should not do so as to do so is an innovation (Imam Zuhri).

Chapter 22:
One should keep quiet and listen when the Imam is delivering the Khutbah on Friday.
520. Narrated by Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “When the imam is delivering the khutbah, and you ask your companion to keep quiet and listen, then no doubt you have done a Laghw (an evil act) [2.56-O.B]

Whoever speaks during the khutbah is like a donkey laden with tablets (Hadith from Muslim) This refers to a donkey with books etc on its back, what use is it to a donkey? Furthermore, whoever says so much as “Sa” when this is not even a word, it is as if he have spoken and there is no Jumu’ah for him (Muslim). So in essence to tell someone to be quiet is to forfeit both of your rewards. All the virtues and the barakah are lost for attending Jumu’ah. You are not sinful for missing Jumu’ah but you forfeit greatly.
Anyone who gathers charity during the khutbah is laden like a donkey. It is haraam to even speak when Quran is being recited as we should remain in hope of Allah’s mercy. The Hanafi and Maliki opinion relating to this suggests it is not permissible at all to speak when the imam enters the Masjid, can’t speak, except for salaah before he sits on the minbar. If you can’t hear the Imam you should engage in dhikr, for example if you are at a distance from the Imam. But if you can’t hear, you can only say صلى الله عليه و سلم or Ameen in the heart and not aloud. The Shafa’i opinion is the most relaxed and say there is no restriction when sending salaam on the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم or saying Ameen. All the madhabs unanimously agree that if someone enters and gives salaam, you should not reply or speak.

Chapter 23:
An hour (opportune lucky time) on Friday

521. Narrated by Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم talked about Friday and said,” There is an hour (opportune time or moment – lucky time) on Friday and if a Muslim gets it while offering Salaah (prayer) [whilst he is steadfast] and asks something from Allah ta’ala, then Allah ill definitely meet his demand”. And he (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) pointed out the shortness of that time with his hands [2.57-O.B.]

This Hadith is mentioned frequently and does not mean an hour as we know it today; but in Arabic it means a portion of time that may only be brief. This time may be from the end of Friday to the start of Saturday according to some. Whoever makes dua’a it will be accepted in ‘that moment’. Verily Allah’s Messenger mentioned that on Friday there is a moment, and whoever finds this moment whilst he is steadfast praying, asking Allah سبحانه وتعالى for something, it will be granted. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said the final hour is also a ‘moment’. There are up to 50 mentions of this in Hadith. The most authentic however are found in Muslim and Abu Dawood.
Abu Dawood: Book 002, Hadith Number 1041:
Narrated By Abu Huraira رضى الله عنه : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was expelled (from Paradise), on it his contrition was accepted, on it he died, and on it the Last Hour will take place. On Friday every beast is on the lookout from dawn to sunrise in fear of the Last Hour, but not jinn and men, and it contains a time at which no Muslim prays and asks anything from Allah سبحانه و تعالىbut He will give it to him. Ka'b said: That is one day every year. So I said: It is on every Friday. Ka'b read the Torah and said: The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) has spoken the truth. Abu Huraira said: I met Abdullah Ibn Salam and told him of my meeting with Ka'b. Abdullah Ibn Salam said: I know what time it is. Abu Huraira said: I asked him to tell me about it. Abdullah Ibn Salam said: It is at the very end of Friday. I asked: How can it be when the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) has said: "No Muslim finds it while he is praying...." and this is the moment when no prayer is offered. Abdullah Ibn Salam said: Has the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) not said: "If anyone is seated waiting for the prayer, he is engaged in the prayer until he observes it." I said: Yes, it is so.
Sahih Muslim: Book 004, Hadith Number 1857:
Abu Huraira رضى الله عنه reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as saying: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created on it he was made to enter Paradise, on it he was expelled from it. And the last hour will take place on no day other than Friday.
Sahih Muslim: Book 004, Hadith Number 1855.
Abu Burda b. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari reported: 'Abdullah b. Umar رضى الله عنه said to me: Did you hear anything from your father narrating something from the messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) about the time on Friday? I said: Yes, I heard him say from the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) (these words): "It is between the time when the Imam sits down and the end of the prayer."

Jinn and men are heedless, every other species fears the ‘final hour’. We must of course fulfil the requirements of the dua’a in every way from appearance to the state of our hearts; not asking for anything Haraam. If a man is on a long journey in a dishevelled state and his food, drink, clothes are haraam how will his dua’a be accepted when he stretches his hands up to Allah when none of the basic conditions for the acceptance of that dua’a have been fulfilled. Just as the time of Jumu’ah is very blessed, the time after Asr until sunset is also very important.

Chapter 24:
If some people leave the Imam during the Jumu’ah prayer.

522: Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (رضى الله عنهما): While we were praying [Jumu’ah khutbah and prayer] with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, some camels loaded with food, arrived (from Sham). The people diverted their attention towards the camels (and left the mosque), and only twelve persons remained with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. So this verse was revealed: “And when they see some merchandise or some amusement [beating of tambour (drums) etc.] they disperse headlong and leave you Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم standing Say: That which Allah hath is better than the pastime and than merchandise and Allah is the best of providers”. (V62:11) [2.58-O.B.]

This Hadith has been narrated by Hussein with the same chain of transmitters but with the alteration that he did not mention the standing position of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. Once when the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was delivering the sermon, there was a famine and people were in great need of food, crops and grain. A caravan arrived during the sermon which had been sent by Abdul Rauf) who had sent the caravan for trade in the area. The companions rushed towards them till only twelve persons were left with him including Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه).
Amongst the 12 people were all 4 Caliphs. In the khutbah he was speaking of the deen and became angry at the people that turned their attention and left. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was angered (Allahu Akbar), in one narration, he broke off the sermon and said, count how many of you are there? They said 12.
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said “By Allah, if all of you had left, the punishment of Allah (the fire) would have consumed this whole family, the stones would have rained down upon you from the heavens.”
Once a man came to Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, and complained of his own blood brother. Rather than summoning this brother, He reputed him and “what do you know that Allah may be sustaining your wealth and maintaining his rizq through him”.
In a story of the Quran, of a town by the seashore:
Ask them Oh Prophet of Allah of that town which was upon on the seashore, whose inhabitants would leave on Sabbath, when their fish would come to them. Allah سبحانه وتعالى prevented the fish from coming close to their net, except on Sabbath. Then the fish appeared luring them. The people of Moses, laid a trap of net before sunrise and after sunset they went to check the nets. So they would retrieve the fish after the Sabbath.
There were 3 groups in that city:
1) Sin and transgression against law of Allah and this attempt to circumvent his law and play with it.
2) A minority that reminded “Fear Allah”, asking why you do this.
3) They wouldn’t go to any length of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. They were not concerned about (1). They said to (2) why do you continue to advise those who Allah will punish when they don’t listen to you anyway. They said “As an excuse and plea before Allah when we are asked what we did to enjoin the good and forbid the evil. This proved a deterrent from the punishment of Allah.
So even 12 men saved the people in the jama’ah for example. Many of the laws of Jumu’ah of not speaking, remaining silent during both sermons (due to it being part of salaah), you can’t engage in any other prayer during khutbah, the khutbah can not be in any language but Arabic (Sahih Muslim); “Oh believers when the call is given on Friday to the dhikr of Allah (sermon) it can only be given in Arabic.”
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم’s companions were seated listening to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم delivering the khutbah. Many contradictory events took place in the early days, but laws set in later on and these things became impermissible. When this verse refers to the companions hastening towards trade, jest and play, Allah سبحانه وتعالى reminds us, whatever people enjoy in this worldly life, that which is with Allah سبحانه وتعالى is far better than any jest and play.
Allah سبحانه وتعالى is reminding us to strike a balance between deen and dunya. There is a sincere need for this now and how it should be done. Islam does tell us to earn, but with restriction, qualification and goal and purpose. This balance can be seen in Jumu’ah.
The Sabbath for the Jews was such that they could not trade, buy, hunt, etc…Many things they restricted for themselves. Again in Christians, people prevent and restrict themselves to certain extents. For example trading on a Sunday. Stemming from the belief of Saturday being day of rest for Jews and Sunday for Christians, because Allah created the heavens and earth in 6 days and he did not suffer any fatigue in this creation. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says in

“Oh believers, when the call is heard for the Friday prayer, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah and abandon, trading, buying and selling. This is far better for you if only you know. And when the prayer has ended, then disperse in the world of Allah and go back to your trade and through the barakah, seek the bounty and grace of Allah, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.”
Jumu’ah Surah (62:9)

So Allah سبحانه وتعالى tells us that we can do all this up until athan. Even on Friday you can trade except from Jumu’ah athan to end of Jumu’ah. But then you must abandon. There is no reprehension or prohibition. This doesn’t mean we trade, trade, trade making the dunya a paradise for ourselves. Instead we must seek the grace of Allah and remember Allah often. We must remember the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and the 4 Surah’s that he read on Jumu’ah. This Hadith reminds us to keep our gaze/focus on the hereafter and earn and work for these few days we are in the dunya. It is okay to out and earn, but remember Allah سبحانه وتعالى. Final 2-3 verses of Surah munafiqun.
Imam Bukhari رحمة الله عليه says in this chapter; of when the people disperse and leave the imam, that the prayer of the imam and those who remain behind is valid.
He is answering 2 questions:
1) How many people must there be for the validity of Jumu’ah salaah.
2) If those leave and only some remain behind, in comparison to what the congregation started with.
Jumu’ah salaah is very unique. It has prerequisites, and conditions. All Ulema agree, except Ibn Hatham (violate the consensus: he’s not good): that one of the conditions is a minimum number of people:
a) Hanbal/Shafi: 40 men, all who are under obligation to perform Jumu’ah (not including travellers, sick); and they say they should be present ALL the way through. If during that period one leaves, no ones Jumu’ah is valid. Today everywhere there is lots of jamia masjid.
Today, wherever people are in a place, 5-10 people, college, universities, etc, people get together. People do this today, don’t take notice of this.
b) Malik: 12 other than imam: from beginning of khutbah till end of salaah. 1 person missing or leaves, have to pray 4 rakah.
c) Imam Hanifa/Abu Yusuf: 4 people including Imam, don’t have to be present except in the salaah. Doesn’t mater about 2 khutbah. Even if it’s not obligatory for them
Imam Bukhari says the salaah of the remainder is still valid even if some leave. Women can attend Jumu’ah, but their numbers has no effect on validity of salaah. Forget the Imam being a woman, a woman can not fulfil any of the numbers of Jumu’ah jama’ah.
In another talk on envy it was mentioned that: “Allah says; Do not aspire to that with which Allah has aspired some you and not others”. For example the difference between women and men or your rival or neighbour’s possessions. Realise that Allah blessed him/them, turn to Allah and ask of His bounty.
Some women went to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم; questioning difference between men and women: He said: “don’t aspire to what Allah has attributed to men and women; and don’t aspire to what they have, and ask Allah of his bounty. Allah knows what and how to distribute in His creation.” … “What do they distribute the mercy of your lord?”

Chapter 25
To offer As Salaat (the prayer) before and after the Jumu’ah prayer.
523. Narrated by Ibn Umar (رضى الله عنهما): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم used to say two raka’ah before the Dhuhr prayer and two rakah after it. He also used to pray two rakah after the Maghrib prayer in his house, and two rakah after the Isha prayer, e would not pray after Jumu’ah till he departed (from the masjid) and then he would pray two rakah at home. [2.59-O.B.]

Apart from the two far’dh rakah of Jumu’ah and apart from the normal 2, 4, 4, 3, and 4 rakah of the 5 daily prayers respectively, are there any other prayers that are prescribed in Islam, that we should be encourage to perform and the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم performed in his prayers? Yes there are.
The obligatory prayers are known as the far’dh, apart from the farayat, there are very important prayers such as the witr salaah and also the ‘Id salaah (in further books of Hadith to follow). Apart from them, related to these five daily prayers as well as the Jumu’ah prayer, there are other rakah and salewat that are to be performed. The obligatory prayers (far’dh) and the prayers performed before and after (rawa’ti); the prescribed regular prayers that are connected to the daily obligatory prayers.
There is a common belief amongst some people that you only perform far’dh salaah nothing else; and that there are no other prayers. All of the schools of Fiqh have prescribed prayers before and after the daily obligatory ones, as we learn from this Hadith. Here, the prayers mentioned in the Hadith are the only ones that are rawatid. So according to this Hadith, the routinely performed rakah’s by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم before and after the obligatory prayers were only 8. 2 before dhuhr, 2 after dhuhr, 2 after Maghrib, 2 after Isha. But that is only according to this Hadith. In another narration 2 more are mentioned (before Fajr) making a total of 10 rakah in total (Bukhari). Further Hadith talk about the preservation of 10 rakah from the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, that is to say that he would always perform them and in emulating him this should be passed forwards.
This Hadith does omit the 2 rakah before Fajr, but based upon this Imam Hanbal and Shafa’i say that the Muslim should perform 10 rakah rawatid (Sunnah) alongside the obligatory prayers on a daily basis. They say that these 10 rakah are Sunan-e-Mu’akhida, which means emphasised Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, because he would always perform them and never miss them. If the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم ever missed or delayed any of the Sunnah prayers he would actually perform Qadhah. Another Hadith talks about the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم narrating a further 2 rakah after Asr.
According to the Hanafi Fiqh there are 12 Rakah based on another narration: 2 before Fajr, 4 before Dhuhr 2 after Dhuhr, 2 after Maghrib, 2 after Isha. These interpretations are based on the narrations from Umm Habibah رضى الله عنها and Umm Mu’mineen Aisha رضى الله عنها. Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others narrate that Umm Habibah رضى الله عنها said: “The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said there is no Muslim servant who prays 12 rakah every day alongside obligatory prayers, except that Allah سبحانه وتعالى will build a house for him in Janaah”. In this Hadith there are only 12 described, but not of when. In another narration she is describing this as Hanafi Fiqh follow.
So it is simple to say that Shafa’i and Hanbali Fiqh rely on 10 rakah as from the narration above, but Hanafi Fiqh base it upon the narration of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم’s wives Umm Habibah رضى الله عنها and Aisha رضى الله عنها saying 12 rakah. So they are identical except the 2 and 4 difference before Dhuhr. These are emphasised Sunnah in that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم would never miss them (Sunan-e-Mu’akhida). Once the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was seen to perform 2 after Asr, as Qadhah for Dhuhr.
Hanbali/Shafa’i Fiqh say that if someone misses a single prayer, he should perform Qadhah of them afterwards. Any emphasised prayer this applies to. Hanafi Fiqh says you can’t compensate for any Sunan-e-Mu’akhida except Fajr salaah (both Sunnah and Far’dh), which you can before midday you can perform the Qadhah of that before midday, not jus the Sunnah. Apart from the emphasised Sunnah’s there are others to be performed on a daily basis. According to the Hanafi Fiqh, apart from the 12, there are also 20 other non emphasised raka’ah that are prescribed. Hanbali Fiqh says there are 22 apart from the 10, and Shafa’i Fiqh says that there are 12 apart from the 10.
Ghair-Muakhida Sunnah, you choose to perform these, but may miss them sometimes as it is not emphasised.

Whoever punctually performs 4 rakah before dhuhr and 4 rakah after dhuhr then Allah سبحانه وتعالى will make the fire of hell haraam upon him (Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah). May Allah have mercy on the man who performs 4 rakah before Asr Salaah (Tirmidhi). 6 rakah after Maghrib and not speaking any ill in between will be made equivalent to the worship of 12 whole years (most have declared this to be weak). Many Hadith have been narrated as weak but the practice of the Sahaba and the following has been strong, so we have accepted them. Clear majority of the Ulema accept weak Hadith in this. All the Ulema of most of the Fiqh schools see this Hadith as common practice. Other narrations for Isha salaah say that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to pray 4 or 6 rakah salaah after Isha.

Hanafi Fiqh:
2 before Fajr Emphasised Sunnah; 2 FARDH
4 before Dhuhr Emphasised Sunnah; 4 FARDH; 2 after Dhuhr Emphasised Sunnah; 2 after Dhuhr Non Emphasised Sunnah
4 before Asr Non Emphasised Sunnah; 4 FARDH
3 FARDH; 2 after Maghrib Emphasised Sunnah; 6 after Maghrib Non Emphasised Sunnah
4 before Isha Non Emphasised Sunnah; 4 FARDH; 2 after Isha Emphasised Sunnah; 4 after Isha Non Emphasised Sunnah
Imam Malik however says there are no Sunan-e-Mu’akhida. 700 Hadith in Bukhari are related from Imam Malik رحمة الله عليه’s Muattah. Imam Malik sees any prayers beyond the Far’dh as Nafl. As many rakah as you want there is no prescribed number according to Imam Malik. It is better to do it, but it is not as a Sunnah, according to Imam Malik it is “encouraged” – Ragheeba to pray 2 before Fajr. **
According to this Hadith, the Prophet SAW also performed 2 rakah after Maghrib at his house, and no salaah after Jumu’ah until he returned home and prayed 2 rakah there. Now what is the ruling of performing nafl prayer in the house or at the masjid? Well Imam Bukhari RA and others all relate a Hadith in which the Prophet SAW says “A mans best prayer is at home except the Far’dh salaah”. So based on this and other Hadith, the clear majority of all of the scholars of Islam, is that apart from the Far’dh prayer, all the other prayers should be performed at home. In other words it is not an obligation but it is better to do so. So the Sunnah you should perform at home. Because of these clear words of the Prophet SAW. Although the Ulema agree it is better, it is not an obligation and it is still permissible to perform any salaah other than the obligatory prayer in the masjid. But the most encouraged and desirable opinion is that of the Sunnah mentioned in this Hadith.
This main Hadith has been related by the sister Umm Mu’mineen Hafsa RA. Looking at the Hadith 8 rakah mentioned in this Hadith, in another narration 10 are mentioned (including 2 before Fajr). No one would visit the Prophet SAW in the hour before Fajr hence it was narrated in this Hadith but others by the wives of the Prophet SAW. Other Hadith are related by members of the household, cousin brothers, etc as the Prophet SAW used to perform nafl and Sunnah at home. He also encouraged his Ummah to do so.
In a further Hadith where the Prophet SAW says “Do not make your homes graveyards”. The meaning of this Hadith is that in the graveyard there is no tilawat of the Quran and there is no salaah as people are dead. This means hence that we should not make our homes dire and void of prayers, but we should enlighten our homes through salaah.
Apart from the daily prayers, this Hadith is mentioned for the purpose of describing the salaat before and after the Jumu’ah prayer. We have mentioned after Jumu’ah clearly, but the Sunan-e-Mu’akhida after Jumu’ah has been mentioned as: (4) Imam Abu Hanifa RA; (6) Imam Yusuf RA of the Hanafi Fiqh; (2) Shafa’i; (2, 4 or 6) Imam Hanbal RA; Imam Malik says as many as you want, as it is nafl. After Jumu’ah the Hanafi Fiqh says one should pray (4) Imam Abu Hanifa RA (6 which is 4 +2) Imam Abu Yusuf RA. So both are acceptable and you can pray 4 or 6. Some describe salaah before Jumu’ah as Bid’ah or innovation. Abu Dawood and others describe that this opinion is incorrect, and the Sunnah is salaah before and after Jumu’ah. All the schools of Fiqh say a person should perform salaah before Jumu’ah.A final point on Sunan-e-Mu’akhida in missing it, is according to the Hanafi school of Fiqh in summary: Someone who deliberately abandons a Sunnah because he holds it in content or tribulises it, this amounts to kufr. Someone who abandons a Sunnah without holding it in content, simply out of laziness, this amounts to a sin and should result in condemnation of that individual. It is not Wajib or Far’dh but it is prescribed and one should perform them.
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2 comments:

Naheda said...

wheres the copy and paste button? lol. Mashallah its really good. I wont have to take notes anymore! lol.

Student of Knowledge said...

SubhanAllah - May Allah (SWT) accept this work.